- Search Search Please fill out this field.
- Career Planning
- Finding a Job
- Cover Letters
How To End a Cover Letter (With Closing Examples)
Alison Doyle is one of the nation’s foremost career experts.
Cover Letter Closing Examples
Closings not to use, how to sign a cover letter, set up an email signature, more cover letter writing tips.
Hugo Lin / The Balance
When you're writing a cover letter or sending an email message to apply for a job, it's important to close your letter in as professional a manner as possible. End your letter with a formal closing, followed by your signature.
As with any job-related correspondence, it's best to opt for a more formal language and tone—a cover letter is no place for "XOXO," “Cheers,” or even a casual "take care" as a closer.
The following is a list of letter closing examples that are appropriate for cover letters and other employment-related correspondence, such as thank-you notes and/or emails to schedule interviews or pass along references.
- Sincerely yours
- Best regards
- With best regards
- Kind regards
- Yours truly
- Most sincerely
- Respectfully yours
- Thank you for your consideration
A cover letter is a formal correspondence, so it's important not to be too casual or friendly when writing it. Here are some letter closings that are fine to use when emailing or writing to a friend, but are not appropriate to use in a cover letter.
- Best wishes
- Eagerly waiting for a response
- Warm regards
- Warmest regards
- Take it easy
- Have a great day
- Have a nice day
- Yours faithfully
- Abbreviations (Thx or any other abbreviated word isn't appropriate)
- Any emoticon (no smiley faces)
- Sent from my phone (if your phone automatically includes it, you can remove it in the settings)
For a printed letter, follow the closing with a comma. Then, on a new line, put your name. Leave a space above your typed name for your written signature.
Signature (hard copy letter)
If you're sending an email, you can add your contact information below your name. For example:
Your Name Your Email Address Your Phone Number Your LinkedIn Profile URL
Whichever sign-off you choose, make sure always to capitalize its first letter.
To simplify, you can set up an email signature that includes your contact information.
An email signature will make it easy for correspondents to readily see how to get in touch and saves you the time of typing the information repeatedly.
Use a Professional Email Account
It’s a wise idea, when conducting a job search, to set up an email account (and accompanying address) dedicated. Doing so will help to ensure that you don’t miss emails from potential employers who might be interested in interviewing you. It also will allow you to provide a professional-sounding email address on your resume and cover letter. This email address should be comprised simply of your name (examples: “John.T.Smith@gmail.com or firstname.lastname@example.org).
Too often, job candidates use their personal email accounts to apply for jobs, often using “cute” email names such as “Crafty_catlady@yahoo.com” or OrcWarrior100@gmail.com.” This casual practice often raises hiring managers, eyebrows, raising red flags about whether a candidate is a serious, qualified applicant for the job to which they are applying.
It’s better to err on the side of safety and separate your professional and personal email accounts.
What To Include in Your Signature
In your signature, include your email address and phone number. You can add your LinkedIn profile URL to make it easy for your recipients to view your skills, accomplishments, educational background, and work history. Depending on your field, you may also want to include a link to your Twitter account; if you do so, make sure that your account is professional and appropriate for viewing by potential employers.
Find out how to set up a professional email signature, including formatting style and links to help you save a signature in your preferred email program.
Cover letters, whether submitted through email or traditional mail channels, are always the first impression you provide a potential employer. Make sure that this impression is a good one by following the “best practices” outlined in these links so that your cover letter shines.
Having an appropriate close is just one of the many steps required to craft a winning cover letter.
Review how to write a cover letter , including what to include in your cover letter, how to write a cover letter, typical cover letter formats, targeted cover letters, and cover letter samples and examples.
By clicking “Accept All Cookies”, you agree to the storing of cookies on your device to enhance site navigation, analyze site usage, and assist in our marketing efforts.
ResumeCoach » Blog » Professional Letters » How to Sign a Cover Letter
How to Sign a Cover Letter
When writing a resume cover letter you should focus on each aspect. One of these key aspects is the conclusion of your cover letter. A good ending to a cover letter includes a proper cover letter signature . How you sign off your cover letter is crucial as it will either leave the prospective employer with a positive, professional first impression .
Choosing how to sign off a cover letter the right way depends on a few factors, such as the cover letter format of your email. However, in general, it’s better to remain formal and professional . You can be positive and even friendly, but avoid casual language such as “thanks”, “cheers”, or “take care”.
If you get it wrong by making a small mistake or by using inappropriate language in your cover letter ending , you risk leaving the wrong impression on the hiring manager. As employers receive so many applications for each position , this can be enough for yours to be discounted.
The signature on your cover letter is a crucial part of your cover letter that you need to nail. Ensure you sign your cover letter the right way and leave the hiring manager with a fantastic impression. Check out the information below to ensure you know how to conclude your cover letter in the best way possible .
How to sign a cover letter when emailing
Emailing job applications, including cover letters and resumes, is the new normal. Regarding the conclusion of your cover letter, you may be asking yourself, “do I need to sign a cover letter that is submitted electronically ?”
You need to have the proper sign-off when you conclude your cover letter, even by email.
It’s essential to know how and where to sign a cover letter if you are emailing it to a hiring manager. Use a professional sign-off (such as sincerely, sincerely yours, best regards, or most sincerely) at the end of the letter, followed by your full name written underneath. Doing so makes your cover letter and job application that much more effective.
If you’re emailing a cover letter with a signature you should use a professional sign off (such as sincerely, sincerely yours, best regards or most sincerely) followed by your full name written underneath .
You don’t need to sign the letter by hand when signing a cover letter electronically . Also avoid using italics or an alternative font as this can look childish. Just write your full name in the same font as the rest of the letter .
It’s also essential to clearly include your contact details when you sign off a resume cover letter . It would be a tragedy if you nailed your cover letter , spent time tailoring your resume using a resume builder , and then the employer didn’t know how to contact you .
An easy, time-effective way of doing this is by setting up an email signature . You should include your name, telephone number, email address and a link to your LinkedIn profile (and any other useful links which may help your application).
Closing signature examples
Here are some examples of how to sign a cover letter electronically . The first example contains the very least you should include (name, email address, and phone number). The third is the ideal example of how to sign a cover letter via email .
Mary Washington [email protected] 70997654
Mary Washington 17 Cherry Tree Lane, Portland, Oregon, 97035. [email protected] 70997654
Mary Washington 17 Cherry Tree Lane, Portland, Oregon, 97035. [email protected] 70997654 www.linkedin.com/marywashington www.personalwebsite.com
Examples of Bad Signatures on Cover Letters
Including this part of a cover letter is essential , and doing it well can give your chances of being hired a serious boost. However, there are things you should avoid writing in your cover letter signature. In a cover letter, you as an applicant have a chance to show off some of your personality, but that does not mean you can be too casual .
Here are some examples of words you should avoid writing when you are signing off your cover letter:
- Best wishes
- Take it easy
It is also a good idea to not use abbreviations of words, such as “thx”. Also, erase any messages that are automatically included by your cell phone. Delete messages such as “Sent from my x phone” before sending.
How to sign a paper cover letter
Though it is becoming less common , you may need to either mail a cover letter or upload one to a website. In these cases, you should leave enough space between the sign-off and your full name to include a handwritten signature . After printing your cover letter you should sign your name using black ink .
For written cover letters you should use a formal business cover letter format which includes your contact details and those of the employer at the top of the page, as well as a heading and salutation . As you include your contact details at the top, there is no need to include them with your signature as you would in an email.
Though the importance of signing a cover letter shouldn’t be underestimated, how to end a cover letter is only one part of your application. Read more cover letter advice for information on writing the other parts of your cover letter and also spend time researching how to write a resume . Using resume templates is an effective way of producing professional-looking results quickly.
- Terms & Conditions
- Cookies Policy
- EXPLORE Coupons Tech Help Pro Random Article About Us Quizzes Contribute Train Your Brain Game Improve Your English Popular Categories Arts and Entertainment Artwork Books Movies Computers and Electronics Computers Phone Skills Technology Hacks Health Men's Health Mental Health Women's Health Relationships Dating Love Relationship Issues Hobbies and Crafts Crafts Drawing Games Education & Communication Communication Skills Personal Development Studying Personal Care and Style Fashion Hair Care Personal Hygiene Youth Personal Care School Stuff Dating All Categories Arts and Entertainment Finance and Business Home and Garden Relationship Quizzes Cars & Other Vehicles Food and Entertaining Personal Care and Style Sports and Fitness Computers and Electronics Health Pets and Animals Travel Education & Communication Hobbies and Crafts Philosophy and Religion Work World Family Life Holidays and Traditions Relationships Youth
- HELP US Support wikiHow Community Dashboard Write an Article Request a New Article More Ideas...
- EDIT Edit this Article
- PRO Courses New Tech Help Pro New Expert Videos About wikiHow Pro Coupons Quizzes Upgrade Sign In
- Browse Articles
- Quizzes New
- Train Your Brain New
- Improve Your English New
- Support wikiHow
- About wikiHow
- Easy Ways to Help
- Approve Questions
- Fix Spelling
- More Things to Try...
- H&M Coupons
- Hotwire Promo Codes
- StubHub Discount Codes
- Ashley Furniture Coupons
- Blue Nile Promo Codes
- NordVPN Coupons
- Samsung Promo Codes
- Chewy Promo Codes
- Ulta Coupons
- Vistaprint Promo Codes
- Shutterfly Promo Codes
- DoorDash Promo Codes
- Office Depot Coupons
- adidas Promo Codes
- Home Depot Coupons
- DSW Coupons
- Bed Bath and Beyond Coupons
- Lowe's Coupons
- Surfshark Coupons
- Nordstrom Coupons
- Walmart Promo Codes
- Dick's Sporting Goods Coupons
- Fanatics Coupons
- Edible Arrangements Coupons
- eBay Coupons
- Log in / Sign up
- Education and Communications
- Laying Out a Letter
How to End a Letter Sincerely: 14+ Tips for Business & Personal Letters
Last Updated: February 20, 2023 References
This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Glenn Carreau . Glenn Carreau is a wikiHow Staff Writer, currently based in Los Angeles. With over four years of experience writing for several online publications, she has covered topics ranging from world history to the entertainment industry. Glenn graduated with honors from Columbia College Chicago, earning a B.A. in Interactive Arts and Media and a minor in Professional Writing. Today, Glenn continues to feed her lifelong love of learning while serving wikiHow's many readers. This article has been viewed 223,106 times. Learn more...
Are you feeling confused about how to choose a sincere, situation-appropriate closing phrase for your letter? You’re not alone! Whether you’re writing a business letter or a thank-you note, your closer is an important piece of the puzzle—and the right one often depends on the situation. Here, we’ll show you which closing phrases are most sincere and teach you how to choose the best one for your letter.
Things You Should Know
- Phrases like “Sincerely” and “Best” (along with variations like “Sincerely yours” and “Best wishes”) are great additions to any letter.
- Use professional closes like “Regards” and “Thank you for your time” to convey your message while being polite to people you don’t know well.
- Write more personal closes like “Take care,” “Cheers,” and “Your friend” in letters to people you know well and are friendly with.
- Sincerely yours
- Very sincerely
- Very sincerely yours
- Best regards
- “Regards” is a fairly neutral phrase. If you want to add some decorum without getting too friendly, “Best regards” is an easy switch.
- Kindest regards
- Warm(est) regards
- Have a good day/evening/weekend
- Looking forward to your reply
- Hope to hear from you soon
- When writing to a friend, you could shorten the phrase and say, “Talk soon.”
- Thank you for your consideration
- Thank you for your recommendation
- Thank you in advance
- Thank you for your assistance
- Thank you (or “Thanks again” if you’ve already said it once near the beginning of the letter.)
- With gratitude
- With sincere thanks
- Many thanks
- Best wishes
- All the best
- Best of luck
- Your friend
- With heartfelt admiration
- With my most sincere apologies
- With a heavy heart
Formatting & Signature Tips
- Sign your first and last name when you write to someone you’ve never met in person.
- Sign only your first name on letters to friends or work colleagues who know you.
- Write your last name in parentheses if you’ve spoken to the recipient on the phone but never met them in person.
- On a handwritten letter, include: Sincerely, Ashton Bailey (Signature) Ashton Bailey (Your written name) [email protected] (Your email) 555-555-5555 (Your phone number)
- In an email, you only need your name, email address, company website, and logo (if there is one).
- Leave personal pronouns out of your closing phrase, as they can sound awkward. Sentence fragments make the best letter closers! In other words, use "Looking forward" instead of "I am looking forward" to ensure your closing flows seamlessly.  X Research source ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
- Remember that some types of personal letters can do more harm than good. For example, when you send a letter full of bitterness and anger, you can’t take those words back—they’re on the page for good. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
- Before sending a negative or angry letter, put it aside and let your emotions settle for a little while. When you return and re-read the letter, you may find you’d rather soften the tone or not send it at all. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
You Might Also Like
- ↑ https://www.hunter.cuny.edu/rwc/repository/files/business-and-professional-writing/business_letter_handout-major-rev.pdf
- ↑ https://www.exclaimer.com/email-signature-handbook/email-sign-offs-guide/
- ↑ https://www.grammar-monster.com/lessons/yours_faithfully_or_sincerely_at_end_of_letter.htm
- ↑ https://erinwrightwriting.com/close-emails-letters-part-1/
- ↑ https://www.theladders.com/career-advice/how-to-end-a-business-letter
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/job_search_writing/job_search_letters/cover_letters_workshop/formatting_and_organization.html
About This Article
- Send fan mail to authors
Reader Success Stories
Sep 1, 2017
Did this article help you?
Mario J. Ibarra
Aug 17, 2017
Aug 7, 2017
- Do Not Sell or Share My Info
- Not Selling Info
wikiHow Tech Help Pro:
Level up your tech skills and stay ahead of the curve
Sincerely or Faithfully?
If you know the name of the person you’re writing to (‘Dear Jane…’) use sincerely . If you don’t know the name of the name of the person you’re addressing then you should use faithfully .
Emails tend me be less formal than traditional letters so you could always keep it simple and use regards/kind regards .
Yours sincerely and Yours faithfully are both traditional ways to end a letter. Letter writing over the years has been an art form and signing off has a long history with conventions attached to it. When you sign off a letter at the end, phrases such as Yours sincerely are known as valedictions . Take a look at these examples :
- Yours truly
- Kind regards
- Yours hopefully
For our American readers there is little fuss over the sincerely/faithfully question because there it is common to use sincerely and not muddle things by adding faithfully to the equation.
But for the rest of us the question arises about how to sign off a letter and make sure that we are using the correct valediction.
Here is how we do it (and how to remember which one to use: faithfully or sincerely).
This is used if you know the person’s name (perhaps the job advertisement has told you to send letters to a Mr J. Fox). You know their name so you will be addressing the letter to them and signing off Yours sincerely.
This is used where you do not know the name of the person to whom you are sending the letter. You may have seen a job advertised but you have not been given a name to address your cover letter to. You may start your letter, Dear Sir or Madam and end it with Yours Faithfully.
Sincerely or faithfully: How Do I Remember Which One To Use?
This is how I remember it: if you are writing a letter to someone and you do not know their name you are writing to them blindly and you must have blind faith that they will reply and be helpful. With this faith in mind you must use faithfully.
If you know the name of the person you are writing to then you are in a stronger position to be sincere in your letter to them: use sincerely
Sincerely or faithfully: another way to remember which one to use.
Many people remember it like this:
Never use Sir with Sincerely
So if you open with Dear Sir or Madam you will never end with sincerely; you will use faithfully.
Remember that a covering email is usually a little less formal and frequently uses less stuffy ways to sign off ; you may use lighter language to sign off such as Regards.
Perhaps you have your own ways of remembering valedictions. Leave your own ideas in the comments section.
If you found this post useful, please Like us on Facebook
Cover Letter , CV , Jobsearch
3 Responses to Sincerely or Faithfully?
The usage of “sincerely” and “faithfully” as described above is nonsense. If you only know a person’s name you clearly do not know the person so “faithfully” is the only valediction that can be used. The meanings of the nouns “person” and “name” are not synonymous but in the above criteria they have been used as such.
Person : A human being regarded as an individual
Name : A word or set of words by which a person or thing is known, addressed, or referred to i.e. label
One then has to clarify what is considered to be the meaning of to know a person. As the noun “person” in this case is the object the word “know” has the following meaning:
[WITH OBJECT] Have developed a relationship with (someone) through meeting and spending time with them; be familiar or friendly with:
It would therefore seem that “faithfully” is the only valediction unless one has met the addressee! It would seem that the above guide to usage is pretty much useless. I was taught if you know the person “sincerely” and if you don’t know the person “faithfully”. KNOWING A NAME IS NOT KNOWING A PERSON! I’m not a scholar of the English language but I do understand that “person” and “name” mean different things. I would seem that English guidelines have been adulterated to allow the one size fits all American usage.
Oxford University Press does not agree that this is nonsense:
“The wording at the end of a business letter follows a standard format: If you know the name of the person you’re writing to, you should end the letter with Yours sincerely. If your letter begins with Dear Sir or Dear Madam, it should end with Yours faithfully.”
Regardless of your sensible, laudable, logical, and probably better suggestion, the convention is as the Job Fox describes, namely (pun intended) “Sir doesn’t go with sincerely”.
To use faithfully where you know the name, but have otherwise no knowledge of the person, will look odd to most people and distract from the purpose of the letter.
Having said that, language changes. Maybe when you were at school, your definition was more generally accepted, but since then the custom has changed. Maybe in a couple of generations, the distinction between sincerely and faithfully will be less known and so widely disregarded that it becomes irrelevant. Maybe we’ll just put a smiley and hit send.
Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
Email (will not be published) (required)
Bad Behavior has blocked 509 access attempts in the last 7 days.
Regards, Best Regards, Kind Regards—How to Use Them in an Email
Should you write regards to close your next letter or email? What does it mean to send your regards, anyway?
When to end an email with regards
Historically, with best regards and with kindest regards have been used as a letter closing—a.k.a. a valediction. In decades past, regards implied not only esteem but also affection; today it sits somewhat higher on the spectrum of formality. While sending regards might have once been reserved for close friends and family, the tone it currently implies makes it well suited for informal correspondence, whether business or personal. A good definition for best regards, for example, would be a comparatively neutral “with my best wishes and esteem.”
Here’s a tip: Want to make sure your writing shines? Grammarly can check your spelling and save you from grammar and punctuation mistakes. It even proofreads your text, so your work is extra polished wherever you write.
Your writing, at its best Grammarly helps you communicate confidently Write with Grammarly
Examples of proper ways to end an email
Formal (business): Yours sincerely; Sincerely
Semi-formal: With best regards; With kindest regards; Warmest regards
Informal: Regards; Kind regards; Best regards
Personal: Yours truly; Cheers; Love
Using regards in an email closing suggests that you have respect for the recipient, but not necessarily a close relationship with them. Because it is less formal than sincerely, expressions with regards are perfect in emails, which tend to be less formal than letters anyway.
The more informal style for an email would be simply Regards . It can work for emails to people you work with regularly, but you might also want to consider that if you correspond with someone very frequently, no closing may be required at all.
Using regarding and regard in a sentence
The preposition regarding can also be used in the sense of concerning or with respect to .
The doctor called this morning regarding your test results.
Has the travel agent given you any more information regarding your proposed trip to Malta?
As a noun , regard can mean consideration :
Jane has no regard for the safety of her employees.
Or esteem :
The software development team holds their supervisor in high regard .
As a verb, to regard means “to consider or think about something in a particular way”:
The law regards child endangerment as a very serious crime indeed.
Or to observe (although this usage is archaic):
Alas, Dante could regard the object of his affection only from a distance.
Regards , best regards , and regard in summary
Regards , Best regards , and Kind regards are good email sign-offs.
Remember that concerning and about can work just as well as, and more concisely than, in regard to and with regard to. The phrases in regards to and with regards to are never correct, and you might garner criticism if you use them.
Need help? (Opens a help chat window)
Founded by MIT & Harvard alumni
Helping millions of people every month
Over 4000 articles and tools
60 Best Alternatives to ‘Sincerely’ for a Card, Email or Text
Amy Wolkenhauer, BA in English/Creative Writing
- Follow on Linkedin
Cake values integrity and transparency. We follow a strict editorial process to provide you with the best content possible. We also may earn commission from purchases made through affiliate links. As an Amazon Associate, we earn from qualifying purchases. Learn more in our affiliate disclosure .
Using the appropriate letter closing can save you from some TMI with the local florist, help you solidify that perfect cover letter, or show appreciation for someone’s time via email or snail mail.
Gifts to Pair with Your Message
- Blank greeting cards ($16.99)
- Wine country gift basket ($54.95)
- Bouquet of fresh-cut flowers ($41.26)
Jump ahead to these sections:
- Informal or Personal Alternatives to Sincerely
Formal or Business Alternatives to Sincerely
Alternatives to sincerely for a cover letter, alternatives to sincerely for a condolence or sympathy card, funny alternatives to sincerely, friendly alternatives to sincerely.
To craft the best closing, reflect back on the content of your correspondence, and consider how you want to leave the conversation—so to speak. While the good old “sincerely” may be appropriate, it’s also dated and may lack that oomph you might be looking for. Explore some of the options listed to see what serves you best!
Informal or Personal Alternatives to Sincerely
This is a place where you can be as creative as you like. Alternatively, you can stick to some safe options that are both sentimental and sweet, perfect for an informal email, ecard, or physical card ( like this small pack of blank greeting cards .) You’ll find both options below.
1. With Love,
This sweet letter closing adds more than just a simple little "love." It's perfect for an email, birthday card, or floral arrangement card. This closing fills the need to magnify your feelings, yet it prevents you from having to share too much with the local florist.
2. Happy Summer!
This exuberant letter closing should reflect the content of the email. Perhaps you want to express how you feel about the impending time off. Or maybe you've been having a wonderful summer and want to share the sentiment.
3. I hope you have a great day!
This letter closing takes the typical farewell and makes it into something so much more sincere.
It's the perfect closing in a card for an extended family member with whom you have a bond, whether they are an aunt, uncle, or cousin. The closing also works well for your yoga or Pilates instructor.
4. Warmest Regards,
This letter closing is appropriate when you’d like to sign off in a warm, empathetic, and caring manner. The closing also works well when you are on the receiving end of sympathy and goodwill like a funeral thank you card or a get well card.
5. Bye for now…
This email or letter closing is open-ended. It's perfect for the neighbor with whom you stay in touch or check up on as well as any old classmate from high school or college.
6. Gotta Boogie!
This text closing is perfect for that old friend with whom you spent most of your formative years. It may sound a little dated, but if you want to leave them with a smile and fond memories, this may be a way to do it.
7. Lots of Love,
This closing works for times when someone needs a lot of encouragement.
For example, if you have a niece or nephew struggling at home or in school, this closing would offer the support they need to hear. It also works as a sympathy message for anyone who has lost a loved one.
8. Your Friend,
While this email sign-off may seem a bit bland, it's the opposite of boring. The closing is really nothing but honest and completely sincere, which makes it the best for someone with whom you have a beautiful friendship.
9. Yours ‘til the Cat Meows!
This closing also relates to the honesty of a friendship, but perhaps this one is a bit more magical.
It's a beautiful closing for the person in your life who just gets you, and no matter how much time lapses, whenever you get together, it's like no time has passed at all.
10. Yours Respectfully,
If you’re sending along get well wishes for your boss or other company personnel, this phrase can tie up your message in a bow.
You can maintain the separation of work-home life while letting them know you have heard about their situation.
The selections below relate to both you as the consumer as well as you as a business associate seeking information. Here, your correspondence will either resonate or flub, so pick one that’s best suited for the situation, whether you're sending a corporate sympathy gift basket or a bouquet of fresh-cut flowers .
This ending is suitable for anyone who wants to remain as neutral as possible without resorting to the standard "sincerely."
It works well if you have met or corresponded a few times, but the relationship is very much in a business-to-business channel.
12. Yours Respectfully,
Finishing an email with “yours respectfully” wraps up a correspondence you have had with a business associate in some capacity or other. It is also neutral enough to make you feel like you’re on a level playing field.
13. Best Regards,
Trying out your formal email formula? Sticking with “best regards” is perfectly acceptable in almost any situation from a professional-professional setting or to a student-mentor setting.
14. With Appreciation,
Should you be looking for advice or help from someone in a professional circumstance, this could be a nice way to remind them of your interest.
Also, if you have had some prior contact, this is also useful to send in the follow-up and closing letter suggesting that your business needs have been met.
A lot of times over email, you can develop a friendly connection with someone over time and have shared some laughs over the long-term.
Ending an email with the word “warmly” is suitable if you have been working one-on-one with regards to a project. It may be a little awkward however if you send it to more than a few close work folks.
16. Thank you for your assistance in this matter,
This formal closing phrase may work when you have concerns or complaints with a product or person within the company. It can also be a way to find out more about an item's warranty, the company guarantee, or a possible replacement.
17. Thank you for your time,
When you are unfamiliar with someone, but you know that they are doing you a favor by addressing your query, saying thank you for your time is always good. It shows that person that although you are adding to their work pile, you also appreciate the time they spend helping you.
18. Your help is greatly appreciated,
Like the above, this closing reflects on your knowledge of someone having worked diligently to make sure your request has not gone unnoticed.
19. Thank you for your recommendation,
When someone has responded to your initial question, send your gratitude over by wrapping up your message with this.
Saying thanks for a recommendation helps especially if you are new in town or at a job and need help finding some things.
20. In Appreciation,
If all else fails, remind someone that you appreciate them for their work. If someone has gone above and beyond to help you, consider using this term to add the right ending to your message of thanks.
Finding a new job is already stressful, so don’t go over the top with a letter closing here. Keep it simple and let your resume do most of the talking.
21. Thank You,
This is easily one of the best cover letter closings to a cover letter. You don't need to put any more thought into it, and no one will look at it as lacking in any way.
22. Thank You for Your Consideration,
Sometimes the candidate pools are very big. When they are, this cover letter closing will let HR and the hiring manager than you are grateful for the time they took to actually read through your resume and cover letter.
Again as mentioned above, using the word respectfully can help remind folks of your admiration for the work they do.
24. Respectfully Yours,
If you have developed a relationship with the hiring manager or a human resources staffer at a company, finishing up an email or letter with “respectfully yours” will let them know how much you value their help while maintaining the professional balance.
25. Most Sincerely,
This mildly personal phrase is a simple but effective flourish when you're filling out your cover letter for admission to an undergrad, post-baccalaureate, or master's program.
Because you are looking to cultivate a strong relationship with multiple mentors, being sincere helps when applying for a job afterward.
26. With Best Regards,
“Best Regards” can elicit a sense of understanding or a bolster good relationship you may have with an admissions counselor or hiring manager. It assumes a little bit more but remains understated.
27. Kind Regards,
This cover letter closing is next to the best closing to a simple thank you. It's also very understated, lacks nothing, and will not be questioned for impertinence or insincerity.
When you're just trying to get some experience writing cover letters, this closing won't raise or lower your resume's position on the pile. If you’re looking to wrap it up succinctly, this is perfectly fine in a pinch.
29. Happy Regards,
In the event that you’re applying for a job thanks to a great network connection, using happy regards can be a positive marker to top off your letter.
But also err on the side of caution if you’re not as familiar with the hiring folks or the people who will be interviewing you, as it can sound a bit awkward and unprofessional.
30. Best Regards,
And finally, “Best Regards” is the most accepted and succinct way of finishing up a cover letter. The closing says that you are eager and business savvy, and they have a lot to look forward to from you.
Continue to offer emotional support with your closing words on any condolence or sympathy card using one of the following options.
31. Sending our love,
This message is a simple but perfect alternative to using ‘sincerely.’ Though you and your family can’t be there, it says you’re sending as much of your love as possible.
32. Our hearts continue to be with you all,
Writing that your collective hearts are with others while they grieve assures them your love extends beyond that hour or day. It’s also for every moment after that that your loved ones need uplifting, talk to, or a shoulder to cry on.
33. You’re in our prayers,
Religious or spiritual closings convey that you’re bringing loved ones into your contemplations, meditations, and continued thoughts. Share it with anyone who understands that this is how your heart works when supporting others.
34. May God hold you in His heart,
Here’s another closing that’ll reflect your religious values. The one just prior is internal and reflective, whereas this one is more of a plea for God’s assistance.
35. You are loved,
When loss is present, loneliness plays havoc on a person’s mental state. To help, leave this message so your loved one knows that there are people who think about them — and love them.
36. With deep sympathy,
Close your letter indicating that you share a common understanding of your loved one’s sorrow, pain, and continued heartache. Let them know you’re compassionate towards their feelings.
37. Forever in our hearts,
Though a person may have died, they remain in people’s thoughts, hearts, and conversations. Most people want you to continue mentioning their loved ones because it keeps their memory alive.
38. You’re in our hearts,
This closing indicates that your friend or loved one is in your present thoughts and will continue to be central in conversation or emotions.
39. Wishing your family peace and strength,
Sorrow caused by the loss of a loved one can be so overwhelming that the two things that are certainly toughest to muster are peace and strength. Wish that for your loved one and their family so they may find it sooner rather than later.
40. With loving memories of Hugo,
If you like or if the culture indicates it’s appropriate, go ahead and mention the name of the person who died. And then continue to keep them alive in future conversations or even gift-giving.
Check below for sarcasm and humor using iconic phrasing from bygone eras, movie or television catchphrases, radio communication, and some obvious cultural references.
41. Rock on,
Never out of date is the iconic party and celebratory phrasing of ‘rock on.’ Use it to indicate your support for anyone maintaining that youthful rock star glow or mentality.
42. You’re a gift that keeps on giving all year long,
This phrase comes straight out of the “Christmas Vacation” movie. It conjures up memories of a non-nutritive varnish on a metal snow disc, frozen features while hunting for the perfect tree, and visits by the best-in-show family members.
43. Keep on keepin’ on,
One interpretation is to keep going, building, and climbing, or at the very least, maintain the current lifestyle. Another might be to hold steady until the storm passes.
44. God save the Queen,
If you’re a British Royalist, this closing line indicates loyalty, but it’s all about having a good time if you love the punk scene.
45. Burn after reading,
Here’s a closing remark for sending sensitive material, including secrets or gossip.
Or use it when your letter is completely mundane and boring for the effect of sarcasm.
46. Over and out,
When you’ve had a long talk via emails or texts, use ‘over and out’ to indicate you’ve reached the fullness of time on that subject.
47. Right on.
Some phrases have several meanings—and this is one of them. In this instance, leave ‘right on’ without any additional signatures to indicate and emphasize positive conclusions.
48. Power to the people.
In the 60s and 70s, this phrase meant empowerment for the masses. And like all good things, a lot of ideas come back around. So, if you’ve been chatting about making improvements in your life or community, drop this at the end of your conversation.
49. Damn the man.
Leave ‘damn the man’ at the end of your conversation stream for a genuinely sarcastic point of view regarding government, policy, and more.
Or insert it to mean that you support your friend’s journey despite the hurdles they’re about to encounter.
50. Be good and be good at it,
Using an ‘and’ in contrast to an ‘or’ in this particular sign-off is about conjuring the best of oneself when striving for improvement. Add it to your closing if you’ve just left an uplifting character report of your friend, trying to build them up so they can climb that mountain.
Below are closing messages from the perspective of mentorship, long friendships, companions, and fur kids.
51. In Solidarity,
Being in solidarity means having something in common, being supportive, having the same purpose or goal, and having someone’s back.
Use it if you’re showing support for a friend going through a rough time or if you’re part of a nonprofit or social goods organization.
52. To Be Continued,
Long-term relationships understand life’s sequels and sagas. Over time, your conversations build and build into one beautiful story.
With this closing, you never have to say ‘goodbye’ or ‘farewell.’ Instead, you leave the ending open to whatever comes your way.
Aloha has a few meanings: hello and goodbye, living in harmony with the natural world, and respecting the earth and each other.
It’s not your typical closing from, say, a Midwesterner, but it would certainly work if you’re vacationing in Hawaii or just returned with a new outlook on life.
54. Peace out,
‘Peace out’ works for meaningful friendships instead of anything business-related. You wouldn’t use it if you were chatting up HR about a new job or complaining about a product. That said, it could work for your surf shop newsletter.
55. Stop being afraid of getting older,
Without sounding too pretentious, you can impart some wisdom in your closing statements that aptly apply to your conversations with others.
This one works for the person whose worry-ometer about aging is off the charts.
56. Remember - words and ideas can change the world,
If your role in the relationship is as a mentor or sage, leave lasting bits of encouragement in your email closings like this one.
Give your friends opportunities to realize their potential, intimating or giving voice to the wisdom they already possess.
57. Always in my thoughts,
This closing would work for those impenetrable and deep friendships. You’re not suggesting anything out of line or context when you use it. It’s really about letting someone know you value them.
58. I ruff you fur-ever,
Furkids are getting in on this action, too. This one is tame, but watch out for those goofballs who can get cheesier with their pet puns. Gotta love it.
59. Be safe, healthy, and happy,
Send healthy wishes instead of just leaving a blah ‘sincerely’ after your message. Wish them good fortune, favor, and more to show your overall love and support.
60. Stay as you are,
I don’t know about you, but most people start a friendship with someone because they’re unique and wonderful, right? Then let them know to keep on with all that loveliness and not change a bit.
Icons sourced from FlatIcon .
- SHRM GLOBAL
Salutations in Cover Letters and E-mail
Members may download one copy of our sample forms and templates for your personal use within your organization. Please note that all such forms and policies should be reviewed by your legal counsel for compliance with applicable law, and should be modified to suit your organization’s culture, industry, and practices. Neither members nor non-members may reproduce such samples in any other way (e.g., to republish in a book or use for a commercial purpose) without SHRM’s permission. To request permission for specific items, click on the “reuse permissions” button on the page where you find the item.
Best-selling author Martin Yate, a career coach and former HR professional, takes your questions each week about how to further your career in HR. Contact him at the e-mail address at the end of this column.
I was wondering if you could provide the recommended salutations to use in a cover letter and thank-you letter when addressing a hiring manager or HR professional. Clearly, the traditional salutations of "Dear Mr." or "Dear Ms." are no longer sufficient in today's gender-neutral environment.
First of all, well done for taking the time to write and send thoughtful cover letters and thank-you notes. Business letters and e-mail display your courtesy and professionalism, and no one ever lost a job offer by being professional and courteous.
That leads us to your question of how to address the recipient of your letters and e-mail. Your letters' salutations and closings should be inclusive and respectful, just as the body of the letters and e-mail should be well-written and specific to the job for which you are applying.
The opening and closing of your communications set the tone for what you have to say, who you are and your grasp of business etiquette. Getting it right shows your written communication skills, professionalism and social graces–and your willingness to learn will be of immeasurable help to an employer over the years.
Whenever you have the opportunity to address someone by name during a job hunt, do so. You can use any of the following salutations as appropriate. Notice that they all start with "Dear," which is the accepted standard; not doing so can sound abrupt or aggressive:
- Dear Susan Roberts
- Dear Martin Yate
- Dear Ms. Susan Roberts
- Dear Mr. Martin Yate
- Dear Dr. Roberts
- Dear Dr. Yate
- Dear Judge Roberts
- Dear Senator Yate
- Dear Pastor/Reverend Roberts
- Dear Professor Yate
Not all sources agree, but I feel that in these less-formal times, it is perfectly acceptable to drop the "Mr." or "Ms." if you don't know the recipient's preferred title and to replace it with a first name.
Note that in the instances above, the writer has taken the time to find a name.
When You Can't Find a Name
The cover letter can be your opportunity to connect with the hiring manager. But if you don't know the manager's name, you may be stuck with these salutations:
- Dear Sir or Madam
- To whom it may concern
- Dear Controller/Director/V.P.
- Dear Hiring Manager
- Dear Human Resources Manager
Unfortunately, none of these is a powerful communication-building opening. Soon, I'll share headhunters' tactics for finding names, so stay tuned.
Write Short Paragraphs
Your salutation should be followed by succinct content that is relevant to the reader and runs no longer than one page. Starting a new paragraph for every fresh point you make clarifies your messaging.
The body of your letter should also be constructed in paragraphs that rarely exceed seven lines. Longer paragraphs are harder for the reader's eye to penetrate. If you must take more than seven lines to make a point, try using bullet points to break up the text and make reading easier.
Take care with how you write your cover letter. It shows the hiring manager what your communication will be like on the job, as well as in the interview.
Closing Your Letter
Close your letter respectfully, and thank the reader for his or her time. These endings are appropriate for a cover letter, interview follow-up letter or any other business communication:
- Sincerely yours
- Yours sincerely
- Yours truly
- Most sincerely
- Respectfully yours
- Thank you for your consideration
Have a question for Martin about advancing or managing your career? From big issues to small, please feel free to e-mail your queries to [email protected] . We'll only publish your first name and city, unless you prefer to remain anonymous—just let us know.
You have successfully saved this page as a bookmark.
Please confirm that you want to proceed with deleting bookmark.
You have successfully removed bookmark.
Please log in as a SHRM member before saving bookmarks.
Your session has expired. Please log in as a SHRM member.
Please purchase a SHRM membership before saving bookmarks.
An error has occurred
Email A Friend
Shrm hr jobs, hire the best hr talent or advance your own career..
- See All Jobs
Are you a department of one?
Expand your toolbox with the tools and techniques needed to fix your organization’s unique needs.
You may also like
SHRM Beverage Tumbler
Student & emerging professional resources, ask hr: is it a problem if all of my workers are the same age, ask hr: should job applicants disclose criminal convictions, sponsor offers, hr daily newsletter, join the conversation.
- Bylaws & Code of Ethics
- SHRM Executive Network
- SHRM Global
- Linkage, Inc.
WORK AT SHRM
- Career Opportunities
- SHRM Foundation DONATE
WORK WITH SHRM
- Speakers Bureau
- Copyright & Permissions
- Advertise with Us
- Partner with Us
- Find an HR Job
- Your California Privacy Rights
- Page Information
- Page Properties
- Interview Prep
- Career Advice
- Resume Builder
Sample Cover Letter With No Experience in Field (And How to Write Yours)
300+ Interview Questions Answered.
300+ Interview Questions with Expert Answers.
Writing an articulate cover letter is challenging for all job seekers. But if you have little or no work experience in a field, the stakes are higher. It’s more challenging to prove your value when you don’t have a series of professional accomplishments to back up your assertions. On the bright side, you probably have more to offer an employer than you realize. You just have to package your strengths the right way.
In this article, you’re going to learn how to write a cover letter for a job with no experience in that field. And we’ll look at a full sample after going through the steps.
Let’s get started…
How to Write a Cover Letter With No Experience
1. the main purpose of your cover letter with no experience.
The purpose of a cover letter is to complement your resume and convince more employers to interview you. You may refer to your resume when writing a cover letter for a job application, but you must expand upon points made in the resume when writing the cover letter.
The cover letter should breathe life into the points made in the resume, and create a compelling—or even emotional—narrative around your career hopes and aspirations . It’s your chance to tell your story and show that you have the passion and the drive to come into a job and make a difference.
And at the end, it should ASK for the interview. We’ll talk about that coming up. Let’s get started by going through how to write a cover letter with no experience, step-by-step…
2. Cover Letter Contact Information
When beginning a cover letter for a job application, start with your contact details in the top left-hand corner of the page. Include your name, city of residence, phone number, and email address. (To preserve your privacy, do not include your physical address). You should also include your LinkedIn URL. Next, write the name of the company you’re applying to, and its city of residence.
3. Your Salutation
Ideally, you address your reader by name in your salutation. Internet sleuthing may reveal the name of the hiring manager. If you can’t find a name, you have two options: call the organization and ask to learn more about the position, or write “Dear [Company Name]” or “Dear Hiring Manager.”
This isn’t ideal, though. You should really only be sending a cover letter if you know the hiring manager’s name and have some specific information about the position. So if you know nothing specific about the hiring manager or job, and the company hasn’t asked for a cover letter specifically, then you probably don’t need to send it .
4. Cover Letter Introduction
Use this section of your cover letter to introduce yourself and share your enthusiasm and why you applied for the position .
Start with your name and provide some background on your strengths. Always identify the position you’re seeking and how you learned about it. If someone at the company told you about the job, then mention that person’s name (only after asking their permission, though). Aim for one to two sentences in your Introduction—keep it short, sweet, and precise.
Example Cover Letter Introduction with No Experience in the Field:
“Hello, my name is Grace Addington, and I’m a goal- and detail-oriented civil engineering graduate from Petaluma College. I was excited to learn about the Junior Engineer internship at Bay Area Rapid Transportation through my former classmate Katie Heinz.”
5. Body Paragraphs
Here comes the most critical part of writing a cover letter with no experience. The purpose of your body paragraphs (one to two brief paragraphs, tops) is to prove that you’re the best candidate for the position. Seeing as how you have little or no previous professional work experience to fall back on, you’ll want to place emphasis on soft skills —attributes of a personal nature that say a lot about your work ethic and ability to work in sync with others. Or, if you have job-related skills (AKA hard skills) from another type of role, point out how those skills will help you transition into this next job and succeed quickly.
That’s what hiring managers are looking for! So while it’s great to write about soft skills and put together a cover letter talking about how you’re willing to learn their job… it’s much better to point out any hands-on experience that you have. So if you’re able, always highlight that first and foremost.
For example, if you had an internship, worked in an unrelated field, did a few academic projects while studying, gave a presentation, etc., those are still valuable pieces to put on your resume AND in your cover letter.
Your resume likely already consists of part-time jobs or school activities or memberships in school associations that maybe aren’t 100% related to the job you’re going after.
Look closer, though—you’ve probably garnered skills in these experiences that can carry over to the job you’re applying for. Below are two examples of cover letter body paragraphs that hone in on two key phrases noted in a job advertisement as requirements: “strong interpersonal skills” and “positive work ethic.” You should be able to figure out pretty quickly which example hits the mark.
Let’s look at two sample paragraphs now from cover letters with no experience in a field:
“I am Twig & Twine’s ideal office manager. As my resume states, I served as an RA at my dorm. I know how to manage an array of things.”
“You’re looking for a candidate with strong interpersonal skills and a positive work ethic. While serving as an RA at Porter College’s main dormitory, I planned monthly social events for over 200 students, settled two to five student disputes per week, and mentored a select group of students in Composition. The experience taught me, rather quickly, how to efficiently multi-task, and how to effectively settle conflicts of all types in a calm, level-headed manner. I feel confident stating that I can bring these talents to Twig & Twine’s office manager position.”
The second example takes the duties that likely appeared in the RA position on the resume and then digs deep, illustrating how the tackling of those duties turned into accomplishments, and led the applicant to grow the crucial skills needed for the office manager position.
One last thing about body paragraphs—remember to frame your message around the employer’s needs, and not yours. Focus on what you can bring to the job, and how your talents will translate into success for the company. That’s important in any cover letter, and becomes even more crucial in a cover letter with no previous work experience.
6. Concluding Your Cover Letter
End your cover letter by reiterating why you’re the best candidate and express your interest once again in the position. And ask them for the interview! It’s surprising but most job seekers don’t do this, and it’s been shown to improve your chances of getting a call to come in for an interview!
So conclude your cover letter by thanking the reader for the time they took to review your application, and tell them you’d like to find a time to meet for an interview to see if it might be a good fit to work together. To close, sign off formally. Try “Respectfully yours” or “Sincerely.”
7. Proofread Everything
Before sending out your new cover letter, read it out loud to catch errors quickly. Ask a trustworthy person to read it as well. Nothing stops you from getting interviews faster than an obvious typo or error in your cover letter or resume, and you only have to check once, but make sure you’re checking it thoroughly!
8. Save it as a PDF
Once the content is finalized, save it as a PDF and title it “[Your Name] Cover Letter” to prevent confusion. Voila! You’re done. If you follow the tips above, you’ll have a great cover letter with no experience so you can get interviews and job offers in this new field!
Sample Cover Letter With No Experience in Field:
Next, let’s look at a full sample of a cover letter that explains why you’d fit well in a role ( and why you chose to apply for this type of role ):
Dear Name, I’m writing to you regarding the Sales Associate job posting, which I believe reports to you. I can offer 5+ years of experience working directly with customers over the phone and in person, primarily in customer support. Although I haven’t worked directly in sales, my customer support experience has helped me build skills in communication, persuasion, and problem-solving, which I believe will translate well into selling software subscriptions for your firm. I’m motivated to transition into sales to continue challenging myself and growing in my career, and I’ve always enjoyed a challenge, which I think working in sales will provide me. I’ve attached my resume for your review. If any of the above sounds interesting, I’d welcome the chance to talk on the phone this week. Thanks for considering my note today. Best regards, Your Name
This cover letter is upfront and clear that you have no experience in the field of sales, but shows that you’re willing to learn and excited to learn this new job. That’s essential!
You don’t JUST want to say you’re willing to learn, though. You want to PROVE that you’ll be able to learn. That’s why this letter also mentions the experience you have that is most similar. In the case of the example above, it’s the customer service experience and communication skills.
While this person may not have sold anything to customers, they still interacted with customers directly, which will be seen as a plus.
One other thing you should always point out if possible: Experience working in the same industry. So if you’ve never done sales, but you did customer support in the exact same industry as the employer, that’s a huge plus… because it means you’ll have less learning needed on the job!
Other Articles That May Help You:
- 3 more tips for writing a cover letter that stands out.
- General tips for how to get a job with no experience.
- How to write the perfect resume “Summary” section with no experience.
Popular Interview Questions
Tell me about yourself.
4 Examples of How to Answer “Tell Me About Yourself” in Interviews.
Why should we hire you?
Best Answers to "Why Should We Hire You?" (4 Samples).
Why did you choose this job?
Eight answers to "Why Did You Choose This Job/Career?".
What to say in a job interview
Top 20 Essential Interview Questions and Answers.
Why did you apply for this position?
3 Example answers for why you applied.
Thank you email after interview.
4 expertly written sample emails for after your interview.
Follow up email after interview
No response after an interview? Here's how to follow up by email.
Resume summary examples
10 Resume summary examples that will get you interviews.
Signs an interview went bad
15 Signs your interview didn't go well.
Best excuses to miss work
9 Good reasons to miss work.
Since 2005, LiveCareer has been developing tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills.
Privacy Preference Center
“Yours Faithfully” or “Yours Sincerely”? Best Choice In Formal Letters
When signing a letter, you can use a few options to end it. “Yours faithfully” and “yours sincerely” are two such options, and this article will look at which is best in formal letters. There are certain rules to follow when using both, so we’ll cover those as well.
Is “Yours Faithfully” Or “Yours Sincerely” The Best Choice For Ending Formal Letters?
They are present at the end of almost every formal email or letter, and we use them to close off before writing our name. Both are correct, and it only depends on how well you know the person you’re writing a letter to that determines which of them you should use.
When To Use “Yours Faithfully”
“Sir,” “madam,” and similar titles are correct to use in this case. We do this when we’re not sure who might receive the letter or want to keep our formalities appropriate.
When To Use “Yours Sincerely” And “Sincerely Yours”
Whether we only know the surname or the full name doesn’t matter. As long as we know an element of their personal name, we are able to use “yours sincerely” to sign off the letter.
Is It Right To Say “Sincerely Yours”?
It might help to look through common usage across American and British English. Sometimes, this helps us to understand whether the phrase is worth learning at all.
According to Google Ngram Viewer , “yours sincerely” is much more popular in British English, and it’s rare that British speakers will ever use “sincerely yours” in their letters or emails.
The exact reason why this is the case is unclear, though it’s taught that “yours sincerely” is the only correct option in British schools. American English like to sway away from standardized rules, so they might have introduced “sincerely yours” as their own unique language construct.
When To Use “Yours Truly”
According to Google Ngram Viewer , “yours truly” is still more popular than the other two choices but much less popular overall in British English. It seems that all three phrases are used almost to the same degree, and British English has no particular preference.
You should use “yours truly” when you do not know the name of the recipient of your letter, just like “yours faithfully.” However, it’s much more likely that you’ll come across this in American English rather than British English.
Why Is It “Yours Faithfully” And Not “Your Faithfully”?
You should use “yours” because it’s addressing “your” in the possessive form, meaning that the recipient now owns the contents of the letter. “Your” isn’t the possessive form, meaning it doesn’t make any sense to sign off in this way.
Does This Rule Also Count For “Yours Truly” And “Your Truly”?
Synonyms for “yours faithfully” and “yours sincerely”.
While “yours faithfully” and “yours sincerely” are great ways to end a letter, there are still plenty of synonyms out there. We’ll include a good number of them, and we’ll finish off this section by telling you whether any of them are better to use than the original two.
With that said, we’d like to point out that “kind regards” is a great formal choice, but we mostly use it in emails. You’ll rarely (if ever) see it used in a letter, so you should avoid doing so.
Martin holds a Master’s degree in Finance and International Business. He has six years of experience in professional communication with clients, executives, and colleagues. Furthermore, he has teaching experience from Aarhus University. Martin has been featured as an expert in communication and teaching on Forbes and Shopify. Read more about Martin here .
You control your data
Choose type of cookies to accept
These cookies give you access to a customized experience of our products. Personalization cookies are also used to deliver content, including ads, relevant to your interests on our Site and third-party sites based on how you interact with our advertisements or content as well as track the content you access (including video viewing). We may also collect password information from you when you log in, as well as computer and/or connection information. During some visits, we may use software tools to measure and collect session information, including page response times, download errors, time spent on certain pages and page interaction information.
These cookies are placed by third-party companies to deliver targeted content based on relevant topics that are of interest to you. And allow you to better interact with social media platforms such as Facebook.
These cookies are essential for the Site's performance and for you to be able to use its features. For example, essential cookies include: cookies dropped to provide the service, maintain your account, provide builder access, payment pages, create IDs for your documents and store your consents.
To see a detailed list of cookies, click here .
- English (UK)
- Cover Letter
How to End a Cover Letter [20+ Closing Paragraph Examples]
As seen in:
You're about to learn how to end a cover letter. But first, think about this:
Picture an HR manager's office. A battered laptop crammed with 300+ cover letters and resumes. The manager, Christie, is reading yours right now. She looks interested… then suddenly clicks “delete.” Aargh! What did you do wrong?
Your skills and achievements are Tony-Stark-level, but Christie will never see them if you don't know how to end a cover letter properly. Ensure you nail your letter's ending—and no one will skip your resume again!
This guide will show you:
- How to end a cover letter in a way that gets the manager excited.
- Several introductory letter closings you can really use.
- How to close a cover letter to attract EVERY employer.
- Examples of great endings that can get you to the interview.
Here's a sample cover letter made with our fast online cover letter tool. It shows the best way to end a cover letter. Want to write your letter fast? See 20+ cover letter templates and create your cover letter here.
Create your cover letter now
Sample cover letter for a resume— See more cover letter examples here .
So there's your perfect ending for a cover letter. Now I'll show you step by step what makes it great, and how to close a cover letter in a way that works for you.
Want to make sure every cover letter you send lands you an interview? Get our free checklist: 35+ Job Winning Cover Letter Tips & Examples
And learn how to ensure your good thing comes in a small package here: Short Cover Letter Examples for a Speedy Job Application
How to End a Cover Letter so the Manager Wants More
You asked yourself, Are Cover Letters Necessary? , and you found the right answer.
Yes, they are.
Now imagine this—
You are reading emails.
I know, fun, right?
One is from a co-worker. She wants you to re-draft a document. Three are from your boss, all heaping work on you.
Another is from a neighbor, asking you to watch her dog.
Then you get one from a rich relative. He's decided to become a Buddhist. He's giving you $10 million and a mansion out in Westchester.
Which email do you answer first?
That's the power of providing value, and it's the key to ending a cover letter.
Let me show you what I mean.
How to End a Cover Letter Examples
Check out these two cover letter closing paragraph examples.
That's as needy as Lutz from 30 Rock. It offers nothing, and makes the manager think, "Ugh, I don't have time to deal with this."
Contrast it with this next closing line and you'll get the message loud and clear.
See the difference? The HR manager is thinking, "Wow, this guy will make me look like Wonder Woman." She's excited as she starts to read your resume.
That's the long and short of how to end a cover letter. Put yourself in the manager's shoes, then offer value that she can't resist.
Now you know the secret. Let me show you several ways to do it right.
Pro Tip: The key idea with closing statements? Finish strong. Promise something of real value to whet the hiring manager's appetite.
Want to save time and have your professional job application ready in minutes? Here are a sample cover letter and a matching resume made with our resume and cover letter builder. Pick a resume template and build your cover letter on a matching template.
Resume and a sample cover letter for a job application. See 18 resume templates for a job here .
Already figured out how to close a cover letter? See our full guide: " How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] "
Five Great How to End a Cover Letter Examples
There's the harried hiring manager, Christie.
Her eyes look like a map of Cleveland from all the letters of introduction she has read. She's as bored as a frozen pea tester watching fireplace videos on Netflix.
Then she gets to yours. She sits up straight.
At the last paragraph, her mouth drops open. She leans forward as she starts to read your resume.
Clearly, you know how to end a cover letter.
But how exactly did you do it?
You offered something Christie really wants, in one of the following five ways.
How to End a Cover Letter by Promising More Info
I'd love to show you how my success at GLTI can translate to real marketing ROI growth for Davidson and Litman.
See? That cover letter closing statement says, "I've got something you need." It offers excitement and teases more.
To get the payoff, the hiring manager has to read your resume, and interview you.
How to End a Cover Letter with a Promise of Employee Growth
I believe my skills and drive will blossom in this job because of the renowned support Phair Donaldson Inc. gives to its team.
See that? This isn't some needy Peppa Pig clone. This is Jack Bauer in the rough, and the hiring manager will skip lunch to read his resume.
Let's look at a few more how to close a cover letter examples. This next one uses energy.
How to End a Cover Letter with Enthusiasm
I'm very excited to hear more about this opportunity, and to share why my last employer calls me indispensable.
Wow, right? That example of how to close a cover letter shows passion. It also hints at something valuable.
The manager just cleaned her glasses for a good look at your resume.
How to End a Cover Letter with a Money-Saving Promise
I'd be honored at the chance to show you how I saved Bookbinder Ltd. $25,000 in inventory costs.
That's not just come cliche for ending a cover letter. It's Buffy Summers, and she can start on Monday.
Can you think of an impressive achievement to tease in your closing paragraph? It's even better if it fits the company's goals. (They're in the job description.)
How to End a Cover Letter with an Offer to Boost Other Metrics
If I'm hired for this job, I'll exemplify the passion and commitment that helped me grow Locklin Hunt Corp's business by 45% in just two years.
Can you believe the recruiter just spit out her mochaccino? You're basically Liz Lemon, seeking a new situation.
Now you know how to end a cover letter. But don't even think about leaving until you see the next great closing paragraph tip.
It can supercharge all the rest.
Pro Tip: Not sure what to tease in your perfect closing paragraph? Research the company and hiring manager to find out what they need.
Got the cover letter closing statement figured out? Want to know how to start one? See our guide: " How to Start a Cover Letter: Sample & Complete Guide [20+ Examples] "
This Secret Trick Is the Best Cover Letter Closing Ever
Imagine you are on a road trip. You're in Oklahoma.
Flat, flat, flat.
You haven't had a change of scenery in hours.
Suddenly, a fighter jet flies by, 100 feet straight up.
There's one thing you can put in a closing line that'll draw the eye like that.
It works because it says, "Here is the most important thing about this letter."
In other words, it's a magnet for the eyes.
How to End a Cover Letter Examples [With P.S.]
Whoops, the hiring manager is snoring.
It's not just that your cover letter closing is generic. It's that you used "P.S." wrong. You didn't punctuate it, and you used a comma. Sloppy.
Instead, do it like this next closing statement example.
Use periods to abbreviate P.S. You can put an "em dash" after it (two dashes linked together) or a colon:
- P.S. —
Pro Tip: The letter of introduction's job is to get your resume read. When you promise something the manager really wants, you give her a reason to read.
Are you learning how to end a cover for an internship? Check out this guide: " How to Write a Cover Letter for an Internship [+20 Examples] "
What to Put at the End of a Cover Letter
So you know how to close a cover letter.
But what do you put after your closing paragraph? How do you sign off on a cover letter?
Cover letter endings are pretty simple:
Just thank the hiring manager. Then add a "Best regards" or "Sincerely" synonym.
Finally, leave a space, and add your name, like in this sample sign-off.
Thank you for your time. I look forward to hearing from you.
You can also add your personal portfolio site, if you've got one.
Should you add your physical address or fax number? Not unless you're ending a cover letter in the 1990s.
Pro Tip: Need some good sincerely synonyms for your cover letter ending? You're in luck. We've got reams of them below.
Don't have a LinkedIn profile yet? Want to make one, fast? See our guide: " How To Optimize Your LinkedIn Summary & Profile To Get Jobs "
Sincerely Synonyms for Cover Letter Closings
Here's the tired hiring manager again.
She's read, "Sincerely" so many times today it's etched into her retinas.
Is there a good sincerely synonym that'll help your ending lines stand out?
First, there's nothing wrong with "Sincerely." You don't need to get attention with your cover letter closing salutation.
You need to get it with your drool-inducing value proposition.
But if you must know how to end a professional letter without "sincerely," you're in luck.
Here are some great synonyms you can use in your cover letter endings:
How to Close a Cover Letter
- Best regards,
- Kind regards,
- With best regards,
- Thank you for your consideration,
- Sincerely yours,
- Yours truly,
- Most sincerely,
- Respectfully yours,
Why are some of those how to end a cover letter examples in bold font? Because they're the strongest closing salutations.
Toward the bottom, things start to get a little old school, curt, or needy.
Don't Use these Closing Salutations
Here's how not to end an introductory letter. Avoid these example sincerely synonyms.
- Take it Easy,
- See You Soon,
- Best Wishes,
- Yours Faithfully,
- Warmest Regards,
- Have a Nice Day,
- Yours in Good Faith,
Those are all either a little too handsy or too Charles Dickens. In a choice between yours sincerely vs yours faithfully, "sincerely" always wins.
Do You Sign Cover Letters?
You don't sign your cover letter when submitting online. However, if you're handing it in on paper, business etiquette requires you to sign it.
How to Sign a Cover Letter?
Put your signature below the sign-off, above your printed out name. If your cover letter is a soft copy submitted online, skip the signature. Especially, if it is an email cover letter .
Pro Tip: Consider making an email signature specifically for resume letter endings. You'll save time, and standardize the process, which means fewer mistakes.
How NOT to Write a Closing Paragraph [Big Mistakes]
Christie, the HR manager, deleted your email so fast she broke a nail.
What did you do wrong?
You made one of these horrendous how to close a cover letter blunders.
The Overcooked Cauliflower Closing Statement
People say nobody reads cover letters, so why write one?
What they mean is, no one reads generic cover letters.
Check out this example of how not to end a resume letter:
See that? After about 200 of those, the recruiter starts to feel like she's got The Chicken Dance song stuck in her head.
Use one of our great how to end a cover letter examples above instead.
Closing a Cover Letter the Pushy Way
"Be confident," they said. "Managers love confidence," they said.
They didn't mean Jethro Bodine confident.
Don't ever imitate this next example:
That's not confident. That's frightening. As in, the manager is picturing you carrying a rubber mallet and wearing a balloon hat.
Ending a Cover Letter with Your Needs
Remember, a cover letter is a value proposition.
You're not providing value if you're being needy.
Wow, right? Nobody wants to hire Henry from Once Upon a Time.
The Goofy Cover Letter Ending
Of course you want to get the manager's attention.
But you want to do it with your amazing strengths and achievements. Not your Kramer-esque antics.
Don't emulate the last of our examples.
Ick, right? You just made a tedious job moreso, while offering nothing anybody wants.
What do all these awful cover letter closing statements have in common? They all highlight your needs rather than the company's.
Pro Tip: Follow up after you send your resume. An email a week later can put you top-of-mind just when it matters most.
Need to know how to email your cover letter and resume? Check out this article: " How to Email Your Resume to Get More Job Offers "
When making a resume in our builder, drag & drop bullet points, skills, and auto-fill the boring stuff. Spell check? Check . Start building a professional resume template here for free .
When you’re done, Zety’s resume builder will score your resume and tell you exactly how to make it better.
Here's how to end a cover letter:
- Sign off with your full name and add your basic contact information in the footer.
- Select an appropriate formal closing: Best regards , Sincerely , or Thank you .
- End your cover letter on a high note. Show that you feel enthusiastic about the position, too.
- Offer value to the manager in your cover letter ending. Be direct and strong.
- Use "P.S." to draw attention to your cover letter closing.
Want to know more about how to close a cover letter? Not sure what your closing paragraph should be about? Perhaps you found the best way to end a cover letter? Give us a shout in the comments! We love to help!
Don't miss out on exclusive stories that will supercharge your career!
Get a weekly dose of inspiration delivered to your inbox
35+ Successful Cover Letter Tips & Advice (With Examples)
Cover letter writing tips—sure to turn any boring letter into something employers want to read.
What to Include in a Cover Letter (Things to Put in 2023)
What to include in a cover letter? Your biography? Work history? Photos of your golden retriever? Learn what to put in a cover letter to make recruiters interested in you.
How to Email a Cover Letter: Samples, Format & Subject Line
Applying for a job via email? You need a perfect email cover letter (No, copy-pasting your regular cover letter will NOT do.) Check out this guide to see an email cover letter sample that gets jobs. Plus, you’ll get an email cover letter template you can adjust and use, tons of expert advice, and actionable cover letter tips.
How to open and close your cover letter
In a tight job market flooded with resumes and cover letters, it’s a given that your documents and messages need to be error-free. So how else can you distinguish your communications? Appropriate openings and closings that convey professionalism and polish.
Use our tips below on how to start your cover letter with a proper greeting and sign off with a polished signature.
Cover letter openings
Write a formal greeting, such as Dear Ms. Alvis or Dear Mr. Yang. If you're unsure of the person’s gender and can’t find out, write the full name, as in Dear Chu Li or Dear Chris Beltran.
While it is increasingly common to see greetings without the "Dear" in business, it is less formal. When applying for a job, sometimes you want to start off formally, even though you may take a less formal tone in subsequent written exchanges.
If you’re unfamiliar with someone’s name, be sure you don’t confuse the first name with the family name, which can easily happen in today’s global business environment, depending in part on the languages you know. For example, the CEO of Lenovo is Yang Yuanqing. His surname is Yang and his first name is Yuanqing (in Mandarin, the family name is written first), so if you are addressing him, you would write Dear Mr. Yang and not Dear Mr. Yuanqing.
A final comment on people’s names: Be sure to spell them correctly. That is one typo no recipient will miss.
What if you cannot track down a contact name for your cover email? Use a generic salutation, such as Dear Hiring Manager, Dear Recruiting Manager or Dear Human Resources Professional. (Avoid To Whom It May Concern; it is antiquated.) Another option is to write Greetings, which is somewhat informal but polite. You could also dispense with the opening greeting altogether and start with your first sentence, although some recipients might find that approach to be abrupt.
In all openings, be sure to capitalize the first letter of every noun and follow your greeting with punctuation. Use either a colon (Dear Mr. Yang:) or a comma (Dear Recruiting Manager,).
Cover letter closings
End your message with a formal closing, such as Sincerely, Regards or Best regards. If your closing contains more than one word, capitalize only the first word, as in Best regards or Sincerely yours. And be sure to put a comma after your closing. A common error in business communications is the omission of that comma.
Your full name goes on the next line. No need for the extra space that used to go on letters for the signature. Write your telephone number and email address on separate lines after your name. Although this contact information is on your resume (and your email address is on your email), including it with your cover message makes life easier for the recipient.
Now, about that resume
Believe it or not, hiring managers are not sadistic gatekeepers; they actually want you to be the solution to their problem. But a cover letter alone won't do it; you also need a resume that clearly demonstrates what you're skilled at and how you can make their company awesome. Could you use some help? Get a free resume evaluation today from the experts at Monster's Resume Writing Service . You'll get detailed feedback in two business days, including a review of your resume's appearance and content, and a prediction of a recruiter's first impression. Getting a new job is hardly an open-and-close proposition, but this is definitely one way you can make the process work better for you.
Most Helpful In Cover Letters
Nursing Cover Letter Example
By Martina Mascali, Monster Contributor
Graphic Designer Cover Letter Example
By Jennifer Verta, Monster Contributor
Sample Sales Cover Letter
Administrative assistant cover letter sample, how to write a police officer cover letter - with example.
A-Z Grammar Terms
A-Z Easily Confused Words
Games and Tests
"Yours sincerely", "Yours faithfully," and "Yours truly"
When to use "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully," and "yours truly".
The Quick Answer
- If you know the recipient or use their name, end your letter with 'Sincerely yours' (US) or 'Yours sincerely' (UK).
- If you don't know the recipient or don't use their name, end your letter 'Yours truly' (US) or 'Yours faithfully' (UK).
Starting and Ending Letters
"Yours sincerely" or "Yours faithfully"?
Use "yours faithfully" ( ) or "yours truly" ( ) for unknown recipients, use "yours sincerely" ( ) or "sincerely yours" ( ) for known recipients, with "yours sincerely" and "yours faithfully" give only the first word a capital letter.
Follow "Yours sincerely" and "Yours faithfully" with a Comma
Write the salutation, postamble, and your name by hand, top tip: don't use "s" twice.
Help Us Improve Grammar Monster
- Do you disagree with something on this page?
- Did you spot a typo?
Find Us Quicker!
- When using a search engine (e.g., Google, Bing), you will find Grammar Monster quicker if you add #gm to your search term.
- A-Z of Punctuation
- A-Z of Grammar Essentials
- A-Z of Easily Confused Words
How to Write a Data Analyst Cover Letter
Are you a recently qualified data analyst? If so, you’ve made a good choice. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, data analytics roles will grow by 23% between 2021 and 2031. For context, this is much faster than the national average for all occupations, which is just 5%.
However, to get your foot in the door for any data analytics role means making a good impression. And that’s where a strong data analyst cover letter comes in.
A well-crafted data analyst cover letter will showcase your skills and get your resume noticed. In this article, we provide tips on how to write a data analyst cover letter, along with examples and a template to get you started. Whether you’re an entry-level analyst or a seasoned professional, you’ll soon be ready to produce a cover letter that pops!
Read on, or use the clickable menu to jump to the topic of your choice:
- Why do you need a data analyst cover letter?
- How to write a data analyst cover letter (step-by-step)
- Data analyst cover letter examples
- Data analyst cover letter template
Ready? Then let’s get started!
1. Why do you need a data analyst cover letter?
Before getting into the nitty-gritty of writing your cover letter, it’s helpful to understand why you need one in the first place.
Besides being a front piece for any job application, the main benefit of a well-written cover letter is that it showcases your qualifications, skills, and experience in a way your resume cannot. You can introduce yourself and your skillset to an employer in a pithy paragraph or two.
Here’s a list of the benefits of sending a well-honed cover letter with your data analytics resume and portfolio:
- A good data analytics cover letter establishes a connection with the hiring manager
- It highlights the most relevant skills and experience for the job
- You can use it to demonstrate your passion for the role
- It’s an additional opportunity to show off your communication and writing skills
- When executed well, it helps you to stand out from other applicants (especially those who don’t bother to include a letter at all, which is more common than you might think)
Now that you know why a data analyst cover letter is an essential part of your job search, let’s explore how to write one.
2. How to write a data analyst cover letter (step-by-step)
A data analyst cover letter shouldn’t typically include anything you haven’t mentioned elsewhere in your resume or portfolio. However, it’s an opportunity to zero in on the most salient aspects of your application, placing them front and center.
In this section, we offer a step-by-step guide to writing your data analyst cover letter, exploring the basics of professional letter writing and the nuances of a letter for this specific role.
Let’s take a look.
Step 1: Layout your letter correctly
First up, structure! Don’t make your data analyst cover letter too wild or creative—save that for your portfolio. Instead, stick to the following standard professional letter format:
[Your contact details]
[A link to your portfolio/professional website]
Top Left (below the date)
[Name of recipient]
[Their job title]
[Their contact address]
[Reference, e.g. ‘Re: Application for role X’]
Next, begin your letter with a professional greeting, using the hiring manager’s name if you know it. If you don’t know their name, simply write ‘Dear Hiring Manager’.
Step 2: Open with a strong introduction
The opening sentence or two of your data analyst cover letter should, in effect, be a punchy summary of what the letter will then cover. This means ticking a few standard boxes while also making a good impression:
- Include the title of the job you’re applying for
- Include the name of the company you’re applying to work with
- Briefly highlight why you’re the best candidate for the role (picking one or two of your most distinguishing features—don’t make it too long, though, as you can go into more detail later)
Beyond that, what exactly makes an introduction ‘strong’? The strongest intros typically use confident, evocative, yet concise language and include specific details about the role to demonstrate that you’ve researched the company.
You might also want to include a ‘hook’ that captures the reader’s attention, such as an intriguing element of your data analysis expertise that others might not have. For example, maybe you have skills using specific data tools or have experience in a relevant industry.
Step 3: Explain why you’re interested in the role
In the second section/paragraph of your data analyst cover letter, hone in on why you’re the ideal candidate for the role. To show that you’re genuinely interested in the company, aim to mention any specific aspects of the position mentioned in the job description that you find attractive or intriguing.
For example, perhaps you’re particularly excited at the prospect of using your data analysis skills to work on the organization’s flagship project. Or maybe you’re passionate about the company’s mission or potential for career growth. This can be a sentence or two—you don’t need to go wild.
Step 4: Showcase your skills, experience, and qualification
The third section of your data analyst cover letter is typically the longest. It’s your chance to show that you have the skills and abilities to excel and is the place to highlight why you’re uniquely qualified for the job.
While you should avoid listing every skill or qualification, don’t be afraid to get specific—list relevant data analysis techniques that you’re proficient in, for example, or qualifications and experience with certain types of software. Perhaps you’ve worked on a project that closely mirrors the work described in the job description. If so, mention it.
This is also the place to namedrop any professional achievements or awards you’ve achieved. Always keep them relevant to the role, though. Nobody needs to know that you won the pie-eating award at the local town fair. Employee of the month, however, is a different matter.
Step 4: End with a strong closing statement and sign off
In the final sentence or two of your data analyst cover letter, wrap up your application and thank the reader for their time. Include a call to action, such as asking for a meeting or a phone call, if appropriate. If in doubt, just say that you look forward to having an opportunity to discuss the position in person (this sounds confident without being too self-assured).
Finally, include a professional sign-off. Traditionally, if a letter’s recipient is unnamed (e.g. ‘Hiring Manager’) you’ll use ‘Faithfully yours’ as a sign-off. Meanwhile, if you know the person’s name, ‘Sincerely yours’ is better. However, if you find these terms old-fashioned, that’s OK. Just stick with something like ‘Kind regards’ or ‘Warm wishes’, and you won’t go too far wrong. The main thing is to avoid being too casual.
Step 5: Proofread, proofread, proofread!
Once you’ve finished your data analyst cover letter, it’s vital to proofread it for errors before sending it off. As a bare minimum, sleep on it and review it in the morning.
Ideally, you should ask a friend or family member—or better yet, someone working in the industry—to read through it, to ensure you’re not missing anything or have made any spelling or grammar mistakes.
Some general tips for writing your data analytics cover letter
In addition to the steps outlined, here are some additional tips for writing your data analytics cover letter:
- Use active rather than passive language, e.g. ‘I achieved’ rather than ‘achievements were made’ (people often use passive language under the misguided notion that it sounds ‘professional’ when plain English is fine)
- Use fresh adjectives to describe yourself rather than tired, overused ones, e.g. ‘versatile’, ‘meticulous’, and ‘ambitious’ over ‘experienced’ or ‘motivated’
- Avoid jargon and technical language, unless you know for sure the person you’re sending it to will understand it, e.g. ‘I used predictive analytics to identify patterns in customer behavior’ is better than ‘I applied advanced ML algorithms to CX insights’
- Always tailor your letter to the job description, and make sure you address the requirements they’ve outlined
- Keep it concise; your letter should ideally be two or three short paragraphs (about 250-300 words) and certainly no more than a single page. This is probably the most challenging part, so expect to write a few drafts and then edit them down
Now that we’ve covered the basics of your data analyst cover letter, let’s take a look at some examples to highlight the best approach.
3. Data analyst cover letter examples
In this section, we’ll get more specific, looking at how you might want to write each section of your data analyst cover letter. We’ve included a good example and a bad example for each of the points covered in section 2, before explaining why one is better than the other.
Example 1: Opening
I am writing to apply for the Business Intelligence Analyst role at Weyland-Yutani Corporation, as advertised on the Big Space Data Jobs Board. With 2 years of experience analyzing customer and business data, I have the necessary skills and qualifications to thrive in this role. I believe I would be a valuable asset to your insights team.
I am applying for the Data Analyst role at your company. I’m sure I’d be a great fit for this job, as I have a lot of experience in the field.
The first example is strong. It shows that the candidate has done their research (mentioning the job title, organization, and even the board where they found the role) and is confident in their skills and qualifications. It also shows respect to the recipient by addressing them by name.
Meanwhile, the second example is too generic. It doesn’t demonstrate any research or knowledge of the role. And while it’s not always possible to know the manager’s name, don’t open with ‘Dear sir/madam’ which presumes the recipient’s gender. It’s not worth offending the person that you want to give you a job!
Example 2: Explaining why you’re interested
I am especially excited about the prospect of using my data analysis skills to assist with Weyland-Yutani’s flagship project, which I know explores the potential product applications of new biological discoveries. As a lifelong advocate of xenobiology, I am particularly interested in how this area of study can potentially intersect with the customer experience.
I have a great deal of experience in data analysis and I’m sure that I would be a great asset to your team. In addition, I’m interested in this role because it pays a lot of money.
The good example here offers more than just generic platitudes; it provides a real insight into the candidate’s motivations for applying for the role while demonstrating their knowledge and enthusiasm for the company’s work. Obviously, we’ve used an imaginary example here, but it highlights the point.
Once again, the bad example is too generic. It shows no real knowledge or understanding of the company and it lacks enthusiasm. And while there’s nothing wrong with being money-driven, think about what the reader will want to see. It’s much more appealing to the hiring manager to hear about your ambition (which benefits them!) rather than your desire to get paid well (which benefits you!)
Example 3: Showcasing your skills, experience, and qualifications
My experience and qualifications make me an ideal candidate for this role. As a Business Intelligence Analyst at Hyperdyne Systems, I developed expertise in predictive analytics and machine learning, which I used to draw insights from large datasets about current product trends. I also lead a project to improve the accuracy of customer segmentation models, resulting in a 5% increase in marketing ROI.
As a data analyst, I have experience in data analysis, machine learning, predictive analytics, and working with large datasets. I am confident that I have the skills and experience necessary for this role.
The good example provides specific examples of the candidate’s accomplishments, demonstrating their expertise and passion for data analytics. This is much more effective than listing generic skills.
The bad example, on the other hand, gives no information about the candidate’s accomplishments or achievements. And while it is OK to list skills in your resume, it’s a waste of your data analytics cover letter not to dig deeper to showcase how you used these skills.
Example 4: Closing
I look forward to discussing my experience and qualifications further and learning more about the opportunity on offer. I would welcome an invitation to discuss the position further.
I hope to hear from you soon.
The good example provides a strong closing statement. It’s polite and respectful, yet confident. It also shows that the candidate has done their research and is genuinely interested in the role.
The bad example is bland, lacks any genuine passion, and does nothing to demonstrate any knowledge of the role or company. Which one would you invite to an interview?
4. Data analyst cover letter template
Now that you’ve seen some examples of how to write a data analyst cover letter, here’s a template you can use to get started with your cover letter. This is, of course, a very generic template, and you should do more than simply fill in the gaps and send it off!
Instead, use the template as a guideline, using the prompts provided to expand on the topics. Tailor the letter to each role you are applying for.
[Link to your portfolio]
Dear [Name of recipient],
I am writing to apply for the [name of the job] role at [name of company], as advertised on [name of job board]. With [number of months/years] experience analyzing [type of data], I feel confident that I have the necessary skills and qualifications to become a valuable asset to your [team/department].
I am especially excited at the prospect of using my data analysis skills to [outline a specific task or project that the role involves]. As a [describe a personal/professional trait], I believe that this project has the potential to [outline a specific benefit that you think the project will bring].
My experience and qualifications make me an ideal candidate for this role. During my time as a [previous role] at [company], I developed expertise in [list relevant skills], which I used to [outline a project/task you’ve been involved in]. I was also able to [outline an accomplishment], resulting in a [describe the outcome].
I look forward to discussing my experience and qualifications further and hearing more about the opportunity that you’re offering.
So there you have it, everything you need to know when writing a job-winning data analyst cover letter. Now that we’ve discussed how to write one, here’s a quick recap:
- A data analyst cover letter is a great way to introduce yourself and your skillset to a potential employer
- Structure your letter in a professional format, with a clear introduction and closing statement
- Include specific details about the role and company in your introduction, and explain why you’re interested in the position
- In the body of your letter, showcase your skills, experience, and qualifications, and explain why you’re the ideal candidate
- Proofread your letter and get someone else to look it over before you send it off
Following this simple advice, you’ll soon have a data analyst cover letter that stands out. Before you know it, you’ll be preparing for that all-important interview!
To learn more about what a career in data analytics might involve, sign up for this free, 5-day data analytics short course . Prefer to read some more? Then check out the following beginner’s guides:
- What does a machine learning engineer do?
- Python pandas tutorial: An introduction for beginners
- Data analytics for beginners: Jupyter Notebook tutorial
- How it works
- Upload application
The English application: Cover letter
Cover letter: final statement and ending salutation, final statement.
The last paragraph of your cover letter should mention when and how you are reachable as well as that you would welcome an invitation for a personal interview. Emphasize that you will reach out to the company yourself in the next few days to ensure that your application has arrived. Having sent the application, you now have a reason to call there. During the phone call, ask whether references and/or additional certificates are required and build an immediate personal contact, preferably with the person responsible.
Short and sweet
- When and how are you reachable?
- You are looking forward to an interview.
- You will call in the next few days to ensure that the application has reached.
The ending salutation depends on whether the name of the contact person is known. ‘Sincerely’ (US) and ‘Yours sincerely’ (UK) are the most common greetings if you know the person’s name. If you do not, however, and have used the salutation, ‘Dear Sir or Madam’, then ‘Yours faithfully’ is the preferred ending salutation. Phrases like ‘With best regards’ must never be used here, as they represent a more colloquial style and are used in email.
Whether you should place a comma after the ending salutation will depend on whether you have placed a comma after the greeting.
Dear Mr. XY, ... Yours sincerely, Dear Mr XY ... Yours sincerely
After the ending salutation, about four blank lines serve as placeholders for your signature, followed by your first and last names. In contrast to the CV, British and American cover letters are both signed.
Kurz und bündig
- ‘Sincerely’ if the contact person is known
- ‘Yours faithfully’ if the contact person is unknown
- Comma after ending salutation if there is also a comma after the greeting
Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
Cover Letter Workshop - Formatting and Organization
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
Media File: Cover Letter Workshop - Formatting and Organization
This resource is enhanced by an Acrobat PDF file. Download the free Acrobat Reader
The cover letter is one of the most challenging documents you may ever write: you must write about yourself without sounding selfish and self-centered. The solution to this is to explain how your values and goals align with the prospective organization's and to discuss how your experience will fulfill the job requirements. Before we get to content, however, you need to know how to format your cover letter in a professional manner.
Formatting your cover letter
Your cover letter should convey a professional message. Of course, the particular expectations of a professional format depend on the organization you are looking to join. For example, an accounting position at a legal firm will require a more traditional document format. A position as an Imagineer at Disney might require a completely different approach. Again, a close audience analysis of the company and the position will yield important information about the document expectations. Let the organization's communications guide your work.
For this example, we are using a traditional approach to cover letters:
- Single-space your cover letter
- Leave a space between each paragraph
- Leave three spaces between your closing (such as "Sincerely" or "Sincerely Yours") and typed name
- Leave a space between your heading (contact information) and greeting (such as, "Dear Mr. Roberts")
- Either align all paragraphs to the left of the page, or indent the first line of each paragraph to the right
- Use standard margins for your cover letter, such as one-inch margins on all sides of the document
- Center your letter in the middle of the page; in other words, make sure that the space at the top and bottom of the page is the same
- Sign your name in ink between your salutation and typed name
Organizing your cover letter
A cover letter has four essential parts: heading, introduction, argument, and closing.
In your heading, include your contact information:
- phone number
- email address
The date and company contact information should directly follow your contact information. Use spacing effectively in order to keep this information more organized and readable. Use the link at the top of this resource to view a sample cover letter - please note the letter is double-spaced for readability purposes only .
Addressing your cover letter
Whenever possible, you should address your letter to a specific individual, the person in charge of interviewing and hiring (the hiring authority). Larger companies often have standard procedures for dealing with solicited and unsolicited resumes and cover letters. Sending your employment documents to a specific person increases the chances that they will be seriously reviewed by the company.
When a job advertisement does not provide you with the name of the hiring authority, call the company to ask for more information. Even if your contact cannot tell you the name of the hiring authority, you can use this time to find out more about the company.
If you cannot find out the name of the hiring authority, you may address your letter to "hiring professionals" - e.g., "Dear Hiring Professionals."
The introduction should include a salutation, such as "Dear Mr. Roberts:" If you are uncertain of your contact's gender, avoid using Mr. or Mrs. by simply using the person's full name.
The body of your introduction can be organized in many ways. However, it is important to include, who you are and why you are writing. It can also state how you learned about the position and why you are interested in it. (This might be the right opportunity to briefly relate your education and/or experience to the requirements of the position.)
Many people hear of job openings from contacts associated with the company. If you wish to include a person's name in your cover letter, make certain that your reader has a positive relationship with the person.
In some instances, you may have previously met the reader of your cover letter. In these instances it is acceptable to use your introduction to remind your reader of who you are and briefly discuss a specific topic of your previous conversation(s).
Most important is to briefly overview why your values and goals align with the organization's and how you will help them. You should also touch on how you match the position requirements. By reviewing how you align with the organization and how your skills match what they're looking for, you can forecast the contents of your cover letter before you move into your argument.
Your argument is an important part of your cover letter, because it allows you to persuade your reader why you are a good fit for the company and the job. Carefully choose what to include in your argument. You want your argument to be as powerful as possible, but it shouldn't cloud your main points by including excessive or irrelevant details about your past. In addition, use your resume (and refer to it) as the source of "data" you will use and expand on in your cover letter.
In your argument, you should try to:
- Show your reader you possess the most important skills s/he seeks (you're a good match for the organization's mission/goals and job requirements).
- Convince your reader that the company will benefit from hiring you (how you will help them).
- Include in each paragraph a strong reason why your employer should hire you and how they will benefit from the relationship.
- Maintain an upbeat/personable tone.
- Avoid explaining your entire resume but use your resume as a source of data to support your argument (the two documents should work together).
Reminder : When writing your argument, it is essential for you to learn as much as possible about the company and the job (see the Cover Letter Workshop - Introduction resource).
Your closing restates your main points and reveals what you plan to do after your readers have received your resume and cover letter. We recommend you do the following in your closing:
- Restate why you align with the organization's mission/goals.
- Restate why your skills match the position requirements and how your experience will help the organization.
- Inform your readers when you will contact them.
- Include your phone number and e-mail address.
- Thank your readers for their consideration.
A sample closing:
I believe my coursework and work experience in electrical engineering will help your Baltimore division attain its goals, and I look forward to meeting with you to discuss the job position further. I will contact you before June 5th to discuss my application. If you wish to contact me, I may be reached at 765-555-6473, or by e-mail at [email protected] Thank you for your time and consideration.
Although this closing may seem bold, potential employers will read your documents with more interest if they know you will be calling them in the future. Also, many employment authorities prefer candidates who are willing to take the initiative to follow-up. Additionally, by following up, you are able to inform prospective employers that you're still interested in the position and determine where the company is in the hiring process. When you tell readers you will contact them, it is imperative that you do so. It will not reflect well on you if you forget to call a potential employer when you said you would. It's best to demonstrate your punctuality and interest in the company by calling when you say you will.
If you do not feel comfortable informing your readers when you will contact them, ask your readers to contact you, and thank them for their time. For example:
Please contact me at 765-555-6473, or by e-mail at [email protected] I look forward to speaking with you. Thank you for your time and consideration.
Before you send the cover letter
Always proofread your cover letter carefully. After you've finished, put it aside for a couple of days if time allows, and then reread it. More than likely, you will discover sentences that could be improved, or grammatical errors that could otherwise prove to be uncharacteristic of your writing abilities. Furthermore, we recommend giving your cover letter to friends and colleagues. Ask them for ways to improve it; listen to their suggestions and revise your document as you see fit.
If you are a Purdue student, you may go to the Writing Lab or CCO for assistance with your cover letter. You can make an appointment to talk about your letter, whether you need to begin drafting it or want help with revising and editing.
Click on the link at the top of this resource for a sample cover letter. Please note that this sample is double spaced for readability only. Unless requested otherwise, always single space your professional communication.
The following are additional Purdue OWL resources to help you write your cover letter:
- Cover Letter Workshop- Formatting and Organization
- Example Employment Documents
- Cover Letters 2: Preparing to Write a Cover Letter
- Cover Letters 3: Writing Your Cover Letter
- Cover Letter Presentation
- Job Search Documents for Working Class Positions
- Get an instant price to have your English document edited by professionals.
English Editing Blog
How to Start and End a Cover Letter
Now that you’ve written your resume in English , and you’ve found a job advertisement, here are a few tips on how to write a respectable cover letter. I consider these tips to be the ‘good manners’ you’d want to extend to your potential new company.
When we’re editing cover letters at English Trackers , I’ve come to realise that many people don’t know how to start or finish a letter in English.
Compared to some of the flowery endings you find in other languages, English is incredibly simple and the salutation and sign off should be learned in pairs.
Let me explain.
The Salutation – How to start a cover letter
There are three possible choices:
You know the person’s name – then use it:
- Dear Mr Parker
You don’t know the person’s name – but have been told to write to the HR department:
- Dear HR Manager
You don’t know the person’s name and don’t want to offend either gender:
- Dear Sir or Madam
NOTE : Do not use ‘To Whom It May Concern’
This should only be used on letters of reference, certificates etc. These kinds of documents are submitted over and over again, and are therefore addressed to many different people – whom ever it may concern.
The Sign Off – How to end a cover letter
There are only two choices: Yours sincerely or Yours faithfully
Here’s a very simple way of remembering whether you end with Yours sincerely or Yours faithfully.
“You can never have more than one ‘ S ’ in a salutation and signoff.” Therefore – Dear S ir & Yours s incerely – should never appear together.
If you know the person’s name, you ALWAYS sign off with Yours sincerely. For every other salutation, you sign off Yours faithfully.
- Dear Mr Parker – Yours sincerely
- Dear Ms Little – Yours sincerely
- Dear Sir – Yours faithfully
- Dear Madam – Yours faithfully
- Dear HR Manager – Yours faithfully
I said it was simple! If you want more info on coping with letter etiquette, download the English Trackers Email Etiquette Tips – we’ve covered just about every eventuality in there.
Setting the tone
Tone is not an easy thing to master in another language. You need to write in such a way that you don’t presume anything – that the person will call you for an interview, that the company will hire you etc. – but you do want to show you’re a good fit for the position.
Endings are very hard – as hard and important as the beginning of a cover letter, and they merit a fair amount of time. You want to end on a positive note that points to the future – the possibility of an interview, the submission of further information.
In the edited version below, these two points are merged together into one fluid and positive last sentence.
I thank you for taking the time to consider my application, and would welcome the opportunity to discuss my qualifications with you in more detail.
In the following unedited example, the first sentence is not too bad in terms of tone, but the second sentence is basically an order; there is not even a please or a thank you!
In case this application together with my attached CV has paid your attention I will be happy to elaborate on the value I can bring xxx company.
As I am permanently employed it is very important that you treat this application with full discretion and confidentiality.
Below, is a polite, edited version of those two sentences:
Should you wish, I would be very happy to discuss the contents of this letter and the enclosed CV in person. I would also request that in light of my on-going permanent employment this application be treated with full discretion and confidentiality.
And don’t forget, when you’ve finished writing – edit, edit, edit .
Re-read it and then if possible, leave it for a night. Come back to it fresh and go through it again. Ask someone else to read it – preferably a native English speaker – and only when you are sure it’s error free and ready to represent you politely – then push SEND!
Good luck with your job applications.
Give me more!
Have you ever wondered what your emails say about you?
What Do Your Emails Say About You?
Common mistakes in CVs and cover letters
Failure to follow instructions/poor attention to detail
Follow the firm’s application details and method of selection. For example, if the instructions are a CV (two pages maximum) plus a one page cover letter addressed to a specific person, then prepare a CV (two pages maximum) plus a one page cover addressed to the specific person.
If the firm’s minimum qualification is a “2:1 degree in any discipline”, do not apply if you achieved a 2:2 or 3 rd without talking to the law firm/recruitment consultant first to ask their advice.
We often see cover letters beginning with “Dear Sir/Madam” and ending with “Yours sincerely”. This is wrong. “Yours sincerely” is only the correct sign-off where you are writing to a specific person. If you don’t know who you are writing to, the correct sign-off is “Yours faithfully”.
Most law firms will give instructions to write to a specific person; if that is the case, the sign-off you should use is “Yours sincerely”. The “sincerely” part does not need to be capitalised.
Incorrect use of capital letters
You only need to use a capital letter in certain circumstances, for example:
- At the beginning of a sentence
- For any proper noun – which is a specific person, place or organisation
- In abbreviations, e.g. United Kingdom becomes UK
Spelling of “driving licence”
Driving licen c e is a noun, a thing. You have a driving licence. Driving licen s e is the American spelling. Also, in England, a “license” is a verb – a doing word. You do not, therefore, have a driving licen s e (in England). If in doubt check your actual driving licence!
Incorrect use of apostrophes
Learn the correct use of apostrophes. Some of the most common mistakes we see on CVs and cover letters are:
- It’s and its. “It’s” is a contraction for “it is” or “it has”. “Its” is used to indicate possession.
- A levels and GCSEs. It is incorrect to write “A level’s” or “GCSE’s”.
- Your and you’re. “Your” indicates possession. “You’re” is a contraction of the words “you are”.
Using too many adjectives
Using too many adjectives and clichés on your CV or cover letter means it may lack substance. For example: “Organised, good attention to detail, professional” is not valuable to the reader, but “Law and LPC graduate seeking paralegal position” is.
Referring to a law firm as a company when it is a partnership or limited liability partnership
Never refer to a law firm as a company if it is not a company. If you do not know the difference between a company, a limited liability partnership and a traditional partnership, find out before you make any applications.
Keep your CV and cover letter in the first person
Your document is about you and you marketing yourself to a law firm. You should not, therefore, refer to yourself in the third person.
The length of your CV or cover letter
Law firms receive a lot of applications for some roles, e.g. training contracts. Therefore, the readers do not want to read anything which does not provide useful content. Keep your cover letter to one page and your CV within two pages (unless there are specific instructions not to do this).
Apply by the closing date
If you are thinking of applying to a particular law firm, ensure you apply by the closing date. Earlier is generally better since it is very competitive to get a training contract and applying early will ensure your application is read.
Share this story
PO Box 3548 Norwich NR7 7TW
King’s Centre King Street Norwich NR1 1PH
Follow these guidelines: Make your cover letter single-spaced. Add a space between each section: contact information, salutation, opening paragraph, middle paragraph, closing paragraph and complimentary closing. (There's no need to indent any of your paragraphs.)
Sincerely Regards Best Respectfully Thank you Related: How To Close a Business Letter (With Tips and Examples) Cover letter closing examples When you combine the elements above, you can create a strong, impactful closing statement for your cover letter. Here are some examples you can use for inspiration:
According to Oxford Dictionaries, "sincerely yours" is a formal expression used for business letters. "Sincerely" can be used in business emails or personal communication in American English. However, whether "Sincerely" is acceptable at all is debatable to some writers.
"Sincerely" is a classic way to end a letter or email, and if you're not sure about options, it's a good one to choose. 1 Best regards, Cordially, and Yours respectfully These letter closings fill the need for something slightly more personal. They are appropriate once you have some knowledge of the person to whom you are writing.
Sincerely yours Regards Best Best regards With best regards Kind regards Yours truly Most sincerely Respectfully Respectfully yours Thank you Thank you for your consideration Closings Not to Use A cover letter is a formal correspondence, so it's important not to be too casual or friendly when writing it.
If you're emailing a cover letter with a signature you should use a professional sign off (such as sincerely, sincerely yours, best regards or most sincerely) followed by your full name written underneath. You don't need to sign the letter by hand when signing a cover letter electronically.
Sincerely yours Very sincerely Very sincerely yours 2 "Regards" Use distant but polite closes for new, important professional contacts. When you're introducing yourself to a new contact or reaching out to a business associate you don't know very well, it's important to seem professional. "Regards" implies both sincerity and respect. 
Yours sincerely and Yours faithfully are both traditional ways to end a letter. Letter writing over the years has been an art form and signing off has a long history with conventions attached to it. When you sign off a letter at the end, phrases such as Yours sincerely are known as valedictions. Take a look at these examples : Yours truly
Formal (business): Yours sincerely; Sincerely Semi-formal: With best regards; With kindest regards; Warmest regards Informal: Regards; Kind regards; Best regards Personal: Yours truly; Cheers; Love Using regards in an email closing suggests that you have respect for the recipient, but not necessarily a close relationship with them.
Alternatives to Sincerely for a Cover Letter Finding a new job is already stressful, so don't go over the top with a letter closing here. Keep it simple and let your resume do most of the talking. 21. Thank You, This is easily one of the best cover letter closings to a cover letter.
These endings are appropriate for a cover letter, interview follow-up letter or any other business communication: Sincerely; Sincerely yours; Yours sincerely; Regards; Yours truly; Most sincerely ...
This cover letter is upfront and clear that you have no experience in the field of sales, but shows that you're willing to learn and excited to learn this new job. That's essential! You don't JUST want to say you're willing to learn, though. You want to PROVE that you'll be able to learn.
You should use "yours sincerely" when using a personal name or if you know the recipient. We refer to both of these statements as "complementary closes." They are present at the end of almost every formal email or letter, and we use them to close off before writing our name.
Here's how to end a cover letter: Sign off with your full name and add your basic contact information in the footer. Select an appropriate formal closing: Best regards, Sincerely, or Thank you. End your cover letter on a high note. Show that you feel enthusiastic about the position, too.
Check that your cover letter complements your resume by expounding on your accomplishments and experiences. Ensure to include a polite greeting before your first paragraph, such as Greetings or Dear and use the hiring manager's name. End your letter with a polite closing, such as Yours sincerely or Kind regards and sign your name.
If your salutation was either 'Dear Sir' or 'Dear Madam,' end your letter with 'Yours faithfully.' If you addressed the recipient with their name at the beginning, you should sign off with the phrase 'Sincerely.' Alternative professional signoffs include: Best regards Kind regards Respectfully Thank you Regards Yours truly Respectfully yours
Cover letter openings. Write a formal greeting, such as Dear Ms. Alvis or Dear Mr. Yang. If you're unsure of the person's gender and can't find out, write the full name, as in Dear Chu Li or Dear Chris Beltran. While it is increasingly common to see greetings without the "Dear" in business, it is less formal. When applying for a job ...
The Quick Answer. If you know the recipient or use their name, end your letter with 'Sincerely yours' (US) or 'Yours sincerely' (UK). If you don't know the recipient or don't use their name, end your letter 'Yours truly' (US) or 'Yours faithfully' (UK). So, if your letter starts "to whom it may concern" or "Dear Sir," end the letter with "Yours ...
Finally, you may use a formal closing remark like "Yours Sincerely" or "Sincerely" followed by your full name to end the cover letter. Related: 3 Free Cover Letter Templates to Create an Impactful First Impression. Cover Page Example (With Steps and Tips for Creating One) Template of a general-purpose cover letter
Step 2: Open with a strong introduction. The opening sentence or two of your data analyst cover letter should, in effect, be a punchy summary of what the letter will then cover. This means ticking a few standard boxes while also making a good impression: Include the title of the job you're applying for.
Follow these steps to craft an effective cover letter: 1. Provide your contact details Start the letter by including your full name, phone number, email address and location. This enables the hiring manager to contact you easily if they want to ask questions about your job application or invite you for an interview.
'Sincerely' (US) and 'Yours sincerely' (UK) are the most common greetings if you know the person's name. If you do not, however, and have used the salutation, 'Dear Sir or Madam', then 'Yours faithfully' is the preferred ending salutation.
For this example, we are using a traditional approach to cover letters: Single-space your cover letter; Leave a space between each paragraph; Leave three spaces between your closing (such as "Sincerely" or "Sincerely Yours") and typed name; Leave a space between your heading (contact information) and greeting (such as, "Dear Mr. Roberts")
The Sign Off - How to end a cover letter. There are only two choices: Yours sincerely or Yours faithfully. Here's a very simple way of remembering whether you end with Yours sincerely or Yours faithfully. "You can never have more than one ' S ' in a salutation and signoff.". Therefore - Dear S ir & Yours s incerely - should ...
Using an alternative to " Sincerely " in your email sign-off is fine, but make sure your alternate phrase is appropriate for your situation. The way you conclude an email to a respected professor might be formal, but you still have enough familiarity with them to use a phrase like " All my best ." An email you're sending to a potential new ...
Synonyms for yours sincerely include sincerely, regards, best wishes, kindest regards, kind regards, respectfully, yours faithfully, best regards, sincerely yours and yours truly. Find more similar words at wordhippo.com!
We often see cover letters beginning with "Dear Sir/Madam" and ending with "Yours sincerely". This is wrong. "Yours sincerely" is only the correct sign-off where you are writing to a specific person. If you don't know who you are writing to, the correct sign-off is "Yours faithfully". Most law firms will give instructions to ...
Most related words/phrases with sentence examples define Yours sincerely meaning and usage. Log in. Thesaurus for Yours sincerely. Related terms for yours sincerely- synonyms, antonyms and sentences with yours sincerely. Lists. synonyms. antonyms. definitions. sentences. thesaurus. Parts of speech. interjections. adverbs. prepositions.